Catholic Candle note: This article is about the particular COVID-19 vaccines which have been researched, produced, or tested in some way by using human cells obtained from an abortion.
As Catholic Candle showed in a previous article, the corona “pandemic” is overblown and is in the “same ballpark” as a bad annual flu. Therefore, a COVID vaccine, if a moral and safe one were available, would only be a good idea for those for whom a flu vaccine would be a good idea, e.g., someone with multiple co-morbidities.
We must not accept the COVID vaccines which are being offered to us. Below, we present five aspects of the COVID-19 vaccine issue:
1. The first part of this article concerns the sinfulness of all abortion-connected vaccines as a general principle;
2. The second part examines the current COVID-19 vaccines in particular and shows that the current COVID-19 vaccines are all abortion-connected and so they are sinful;
3. The third part surveys the approval given by the Vatican and several conferences of Catholic (supposed) “bishops” and also contrasts the N-SSPX’s new position concerning abortion-connected vaccines and how the N-SSPX’s new position contradicts its old position;
4. The fourth part examines the grave health risks presented to the recipients of the current COVID-19 vaccines and so, in addition to those vaccines being sinful because they are abortion-connected, those vaccines would also seem to be a sin against prudence because they are too risky to our own health; and
5. The fifth part examines the lack of lasting immunity obtained from these vaccines.
In the remainder of this article, we examine each of these aspects.
Part 1: The Evil of using Vaccines made through the Murders of Babies
We live in a godless society and there are countless evils around us. For example, in some places, for some diseases (like chickenpox), a person can only obtain vaccines whose manufacturers used cell lines from murdered babies, to develop the vaccines or as disease cultures for manufacturing them.
The conciliar church is lax and liberal and approves receiving vaccines which come from the cell lines of murdered babies, unless there is an alternative vaccine which does not use murder. But there are three reasons it is wrong to accept these vaccines developed or manufactured using the cell lines of murdered babies:
1. Using those vaccines promotes future murders.
2. Using those vaccines rewards persons connected with the murders.
3. We incur guilt for those murders, by our consenting to use those vaccines.
Below, we discuss each of these reasons.
1. Using abortion-connected vaccines promotes future murders.
Using the cell lines from murdered babies encourages future murders whenever pharmaceutical companies deem it to be convenient and profitable to commit more murders for use in vaccine research or production.
Because people did not refuse vaccines coming from the 1960s-era cell lines taken from murdered babies, drug companies, labs, and researchers felt “free” to commit more murders to create new cell lines. For example, a new cell line from a new murdered baby, was announced in 2015.
Accepting those vaccines manufactured through murdered babies, promotes future murders (and every murder of an innocent human is a murder too many)! Thus, when you use a vaccine produced through murder, the drug companies are encouraged to commit additional murders to keep vaccine production high.
2. Using those vaccines rewards persons connected with the murders.
It is wrong to use vaccines produced from murdered babies because using these vaccines enables manufacturers to profit through the murders. We should not help drug companies make wickedness profitable!
3. We incur guilt for the babies’ murders by our consenting to use those vaccines.
We become culpable for someone else’s sin by consenting to it. When St. Paul teaches us this truth about sharing someone else’s sin by consent, he mentions murder in particular. Here are his words:
Being filled with … murder, … they who do such things, are worthy of death; and not only they that do them, but they also that consent to them that do them.
Romans, 1:29-32 (emphasis added).
A person is guilty of a murder by his consent when he acquiesces, even passively, or accedes, even reluctantly, to the murder. When we use vaccines which come from murder, we are (at least) passively accepting – i.e., giving in to – the murders that make those vaccines available.
A person can incur guilt by consenting even after the murder.
Some ways of sharing in someone else’s sin can only occur before the sin is committed, e.g., commanding or advising that the sin should be committed. See, the above list (from The Penny Catechism) of ways to share someone else’s sin.
However, consent to the sin is different. A person can consent to (i.e., acquiesce in) a murder either before or after it is committed, and so can incur guilt either way.
St. Thomas Aquinas, greatest Doctor of the Catholic Church, teaches that a person can incur guilt by consenting to a murder which has already been committed. He applies this principle (of guilt through post-murder consent) to a person who joins the Jewish religion after Christ’s murder. Here are St. Thomas’ words:
When a person becomes a Jew, he becomes a participant in the killing of Christ.
St. Thomas Aquinas, Lectures on St. Matthew’s Gospel, ch.23, §1861 (emphasis added).
By using those vaccines manufactured through the murders of babies, a person thus incurs guilt by consenting to (i.e., acquiescing in) the murders of those babies even though those murders were already committed.
The passage of time does not make it no longer sinful to consent to those murders.
A superficial objection could be raised that the vaccines were made from murdered babies more than five decades ago and surely that is “so long ago” that we should disregard the murders because they are too distant in time.
That is wrong. God does not cease to treat a murder as murder merely because of the passage of time. Those who commit murder and those that consent to it, remain culpable. The mere passage of time does not remove the inherent guilt. The punishments of hell are forever because the damned do not repent and the simple passage of time does not erase guilt (even a billion years in hell).
Just as God does not overlook culpability for murder simply because of the passage of time, man does not do so either. In the civil society, there is typically no statute of limitations for murder. In other words, no murder is ever so remote in time that it is no longer culpable and punishable.
The murdering of the babies which was committed in order to “harvest” their cell lines, was premeditated and is first degree murder. The passage of time does not change the guilt of those murders and does not eliminate the guilt of a person who consents to them.
No matter how much time passes, faithful and informed Catholics will never accept a vaccine developed through the murder of a baby!
The end does not justify the means
Another superficial objection could be raised that vaccines do much good and that they save so many lives that this “outweighs” the murders through which the vaccines are produced. However, faithful and informed Catholics must never be complicit in evil because of “good” that can come from it. The end does not justify the means!
Discerning God’s Will through standing up for principle.
A similar, superficial objection is that without receiving these sinful vaccines, I will
lose some opportunity, for example, the chance to enter (or send my dependents to) a particular school. Again, the end does not justify the means!
If, despite your best efforts, you cannot receive a “conscience waiver” or “religious exemption” to attend (or send your dependents to) the school without receiving a sinful vaccine, that merely shows you that God does not want you to attend that particular school, etc.
We are not justified in consenting to even the smallest of sins, much less, consenting to murder.
The evil at issue here is murder. That is a very grave evil. But even if a person were to suppose that receiving vaccines derived from the cell lines of murdered babies were “only” a venial sin, even the very smallest sin is an infinite evil in three ways. We should be ready to die rather than commit any sin.
Here is how St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Doctor of the Church, warns against committing even the smallest sin:
A single venial sin is more displeasing to God than [i.e., outweighs] all the good works we can perform.
St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Uniformity with God’s Will, §6 (bracketed word added for clarity).
Here is how St. John of the Cross, Doctor of the Church, warns us that the road to hell begins with small sins:
Our Lord said in the Gospel: “He that is unfaithful in little will be unfaithful also in much.” For he that avoids the small sin will not fall into the great sin; but great evil is inherent in the small sin, since it has already penetrated within the fence and wall of the heart; and as the proverb says: Once begun, half done.
Ascent of Mount Carmel, Book III, ch.20, section 1.
Here is how John Henry Cardinal Newman declares that the smallest sin is worse than all the physical suffering in the world:
The Catholic Church holds it better for the sun and moon to drop from heaven, for the earth to fail, and for all the many millions on it to die of starvation in extremest agony, as far as temporal affliction goes, than that one soul, I will not say, should be lost, but should commit one single venial sin, should tell one willful untruth, or should steal one poor farthing without excuse.
Apologia Vita Sua, by John Henry Cardinal Newman, Image Books, Doubleday, Garden City, New York, © 1956, p.324.
Conclusion of this section
In summary, some vaccines are produced through cell lines obtained from murdered babies. There are three reasons getting these vaccines is a sin:
1. Using these vaccines promotes future murders.
2. Using these vaccines rewards those connected with the murders.
3. We become culpable for the murders, by our consent.
We should stand up for Christ and reject these sinful vaccines. We should also urge others to stand against these vaccines which break God’s Law (including the Natural Law). At our Judgment we would want to have done so!
Part 2: The Currently Available COVID-19 Vaccines are all Abortion-Connected and are all sinful to receive.
➢ The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is tested using the HEK293 cell line. The abbreviation “HEK293” refers to “Human Embryonic Kidney 293, identifying the organ of the particular murdered baby, who in this case was a baby girl aborted in the Netherlands in the 1970s. Although each “cell line” is from a particular murdered baby, the cell line production process requires many babies dissected alive without anesthetic to successfully obtain a single such human “cell line”.
➢ The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine used the parts grown from the same kidney from the same murdered baby girl.
➢ The Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine used the parts of the same kidney from the same murdered baby girl.
➢ The coming Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine which is being developed, uses the PER.C6 cell line. This is the body of a different murdered baby. This vaccine uses the retinal tissue of an 18-week baby boy who was murdered in the Netherlands in 1985.
➢ The coming COVID-19 vaccine being developed by Sanofi/Translate Bio uses the parts of the kidney from the murdered baby girl identified as HEK293.
Catholics would commit a serious sin by accepting any of these COVID-19 vaccines because they were developed using abortion.
Part 3: The Vatican and several conferences of Catholic (so-called) “bishops” approve of the abortion-connected vaccines and the N-SSPX contradicts its prior rejection of abortion-connected vaccines.
The Vatican and the national conferences of Catholic (so-called) “bishops” for the U.S. , Canada, and the UK all approve receiving the COVID-19 vaccine based on the false reasoning that a few decades passage of time makes it acceptable to cooperate and consent to these murders by accepting these abortion-connected vaccines. Those conciliar leaders also assert the evil argument that the end justifies the means, i.e., we need to accept the abortion-connected vaccines because our health is so important. These false arguments were answered above.
Pope Francis even went so far as to assert that Catholics have a moral duty to receive one of the abortion-connected vaccines. Here are his words, as quoted in a news report:
“I believe that, ethically, everyone should take the vaccine,” he said, according to a transcript released in advance of the airing of the interview.
Although the vast majority of the conciliar hierarchy accepts the abortion-connected COVID-19 vaccines, a few members of the hierarchy do stand for the truth and oppose the COVID-19 vaccines. Among these are three cardinals (Mueller, Zen, & Pujats) and five (so-called) “bishops”. One of them declared (correctly) that we must accept martyrdom rather than accept any of the current COVID-19 vaccines. He added that:
The crime of abortion is so monstrous that any kind of concatenation with this crime, even a very remote one, is immoral and cannot be accepted under any circumstances by a Catholic once he has become fully aware of it.
These cardinals and (so-called) “bishops” are conciliar, not traditional. They are in “good standing” in the conciliar church and all of them accept various conciliar errors, e.g., religious liberty for false religions. However, even they clearly see the sinfulness of these abortion-connected vaccines, in contrast to the liberal N-SSPX (as shown next).
The N-SSPX’s approval of the abortion-connected vaccines
In its recent statement which approves using the abortion-connected COVID-19 vaccines, the N-SSPX merely parroted the conclusory “justifications” of the Vatican, and the conciliar “bishops” conferences of the U.S., Canada and the UK.
The N-SSPX starts out by disparaging its own prior position (viz., that all abortion-connected vaccines are sinful) as supported by “rumor”. Here are the N-SSPX’s words:
[M]any rumors circulate about those vaccines that suggest a moral impossibility to use them [viz., using the COVID-19 vaccines now available].
Because no one wants to act based on “rumors”, the N-SSPX tries in this way to undermine its readers’ resistance to accepting the current COVID-19 vaccines.
Concerning all of these abortion-connected COVID-19 vaccines, the N-SSPX then concludes that “it is possible … to use such a vaccine.”
One of the flaws in this liberal N-SSPX article, is that it focuses only on the sinfulness of actually taking part (in one way or another) in the actual abortion itself. The N-SSPX article does not explicitly consider the sin committed by consenting to this sinful act (murder) already committed. See above, the nine ways a person can share in someone else’s sin.
Another flaw in the article is that the N-SSPX simply declares the conclusion that the abortion used in the development of the vaccine was too long ago (“remote”) to be sinful, but fails to make any comparison between:
· the length of time since these abortions only a few decades ago;
· other murders – even hundreds of years ago – where passage of time has still not removed the sinfulness of cooperation with those ancient murders.
A third flaw in the N-SSPX’s current position is that the N-SSPX fails to address the continued compensation of all of those persons (e.g., the pharmaceutical companies) who are continually profiting from these murders.
A fourth flaw in the N-SSPX’s current article is that it does not address the fact that the profitability of using the bodies of murdered babies gives researchers the incentive to murder more babies.
Twenty years ago, the SSPX used to teach the Catholic truth about abortion-connected vaccines. In a June 2000 Angelus Magazine article, the SSPX stated: “Consequently, it would be immoral to use a vaccine that one knew was developed in fetal cells, no matter how great the advantage to be procured.” In other words, the SSPX’s older article correctly warns that the end does not justify the means.
This earlier SSPX article condemns using all abortion-connected vaccines, but specifically warns about the evil of accepting the abortion-connected rubella vaccine. Now, however, the N-SSPX’s new article specifically justifies accepting this same abortion-connected rubella vaccine (a bad means) because of a good end (avoiding birth defects caused by rubella). Here are the N-SSPX’s words in 2020 advocating the end justifying the means:
A young woman who is to get married can thus receive the rubella vaccine, although such a vaccine is almost always prepared on fetal cells obtained by abortion. The reason is the danger for the child: if a woman contracts rubella during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, the risk of birth defects – eye, hearing or heart – are [sic] significant. These malformations are permanent.
Part 4: The grave health risks of the current COVID-19 vaccines would seem to make receiving this vaccine a sin against prudence because those vaccines are too risky to our own health.
In addition to the COVID-19 vaccines being mortally sinful because recipients of the vaccines consent to their development through use of murdered babies, these vaccines would seem to also be a sin against prudence because they are a grave risk to the health of those receiving the vaccines.
The U.S.’s chief scientific adviser for the American COVID-19 vaccine rollout admitted that the number of adverse reactions is higher than he expected it would be. So far, severe adverse reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines occur at a rate about 8.5 times higher than for flu vaccines.
One of the severe reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine is anaphylactic shock, suffered even by people who never previously had an allergic reaction to anything. This anaphylactic shock can occur as a reaction to other vaccines, but it occurs 22 times more frequently in the COVID-19 vaccine. Because of the unexpectedly high rate of dangerous reactions, the British medicines regulator (the MHRA) recommends that locations administering these vaccines have emergency resuscitation facilities on site. One news report includes video footage of a nurse collapsing after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, as she stepped up to the podium to tell people how great it was to receive the vaccine.
In addition to anaphylactic shock, the U.S. FDA’s warning of severe adverse reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine, includes, but is not limited to:
➢ convulsions and seizures;
➢ heart attacks;
➢ “Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis,” which is a “rare inflammatory condition that affects the brain and spinal cord”;
➢ “Transverse myelitis” which is a neurological disorder which inflames the spinal cord, causing “pain, muscle weakness, paralysis, sensory problems, or bladder and bowel dysfunction.”
➢ auto-immune disease; (One such disease is “Guillain-Barré syndrome,” described as “a rare disorder in which your body’s immune system attacks your nerves.” The syndrome has “no known cure,” and its mortality rate is “4% to 7%.”)
➢ birth defects;
➢ harm to nursing babies;
➢ infertility of an indefinite duration;
➢ Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children;
➢ facial paralysis, (Bell’s Palsy) ; and
➢ Kawasaki disease.
There are also other severe risks as well as common, less severe side effects from receiving the COVID-19 vaccines.
Here is one catalog of less severe side effects, together with their likelihood of occurring with any single injection of the COVID-19 vaccine:
In clinical studies, the adverse reactions in participants 18 years of age and older were pain at the injection site (92.0%), fatigue (70.0%), headache (64.7%), myalgia (61.5%), arthralgia (46.4%), chills (45.4%), nausea/vomiting (23.0%), axillary swelling/tenderness (19.8%), fever (15.5%), swelling at the injection site (14.7%), and erythema at the injection site (10.0%).
As of December 18, 2020, hundreds of people have been admitted to the emergency rooms shortly following their receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine and thousands of people have suffered adverse reactions. There has also been unexplained deaths of people believed to be healthy before receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.
The novelty and lack of testing of this vaccine presents possibly-grave additional risks.
The current COVID-19 vaccines have been rushed out without the usual vaccine testing and trial periods. The vaccines have been approved only for “emergency use”. The vaccine makers are immune from legal liability no matter how much harm is done by their poorly tested vaccines.
The current COVID-19 vaccines are a completely new type of vaccine never tried before. All previous vaccines introduced a weakened or neutralized part of the disease-causing substance into the body and the body of the recipient then “learned” to fight this substance so that it would be prepared to fight a virulent form of this same disease.
The new COVID-19 vaccines are much different. They use “messenger RNA” to change the “commands” or “instructions” given to our bodies’ own cells to cause those cells to produce spike proteins that they would never naturally produce, so that our own bodies would then fight these spike proteins produced by our bodies. Moderna, one of the COVID-19 vaccine makers, likens this overriding of our bodies’ cellular processes to introducing a new software program into a computer.
This is a revolutionary and invasive procedure and has had only months of testing, skipping much of the normal, much-longer testing process usually used to help assure the vaccine is safe. What are the long-term effects? We don’t know. No one knows. Among many other grave potential harms, is the harm of a fatal, exaggerated immune reaction when encountering the “wild” virus itself.
Yet the world is injecting this vaccine into hundreds of millions (or even billions) of people. Should we trust the pharmaceutical companies to be honest with us? Hardly. Those companies are:
❖ earning trillions of dollars selling whatever COVID-19 vaccine they can come up with;
❖ using a brand-new technology;
❖ after an extremely short and inadequate testing process; and
❖ shielded from legal liability no matter how much harm they cause to us by these vaccines.
The imprudence of trusting the pharmaceutical companies entirely leaves aside the past history of pharmaceutical companies violating health and safety laws, and/or committing massive fraud.
The mainstream media declares that COVID-19 is an extreme emergency and so the media tells people how “alarming” it is that so many “frontline” workers refuse to accept the vaccine. For example:
➢ About 60% of Ohio nursing home workers refuse this vaccine.
➢ About 50% of frontline workers in Riverside County, California, refuse it.
➢ Over 50% of New York firefighters reject the vaccine.
For all of the above reasons in this section, the COVID-19 vaccines are too risky even if it were not a mortal sin to receive them because they were developed using murdered babies.
Part 5: The Immunity obtained from the COVID-19 Vaccine is likely of short duration.
All viruses constantly change. The viruses’ continual mutations is one reason why there is no permanent vaccine for the flu (or colds) and why vaccines even for the current version of the flu are only partially successful – because the flu vaccine is being developed months ahead of time and, before the flu season even begins, the flu virus is already changing away from the current version of the flu at which the current vaccine was targeted.
Another reason a single injection of the flu vaccine does not give lasting, multi-year immunity, is because our bodies’ immunity does not last even against the same strain of the flu. That is why coronavirus immunity from either contracting COVID-19 or from a vaccine is called “transient immunity”, because the immunity does not last.
Therefore, whatever coronaviruses are presently spreading will continually change and whatever immunity we have through having contracted this (generally mild) disease or through a vaccine, will probably not last long.
It is a mortal sin to accept any vaccine developed using murdered babies. The current COVID-19 vaccines are of this type and are gravely wrong to receive, consent to, or to cooperate with. Further, these vaccines gravely endanger many people because of their many grave and less-grave side effects. Those vaccines are revolutionary and are invasive in a way never before tried because they change the instructions used by our own cells. These vaccines have unknown long-term side effects and provide an immunity which probably does not last long.
 Here is summary of this basic truth from a common catechism:
328. When are we answerable for the sins of others?
We are answerable for the sins of others whenever we either cause them, or share in them, through our own fault.
329. In how many ways may we either cause or share the guilt of another’s sin?
We may either cause or share the guilt of another’s sin in nine ways:
1. By counsel.
2. By command.
3. By consent.
4. By provocation.
5. By praise or flattery.
6. By concealment.
7. By being a partner in the sin.
8. By silence.
9. By defending the ill done.
Quoted from The Penny Catechism, Nihil Obstat, Joannes M.T. Barton, S.T.D., L.S.S., Censor deputatus, Imprimatur, Georgius L. Craven, Epus Sebastopolis, Vicarius Generalis, Westmonasterii, die 20a Junii, 1958, p.57 (emphasis added).
 Here is the longer quote from St. Paul:
Being filled with all iniquity, malice, fornication, avarice, wickedness, full of envy, murder, contention, deceit, malignity, whisperers, detractors, hateful to God, contumelious, proud, haughty, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, foolish, dissolute, without affection, without fidelity, without mercy. Who, having known the justice of God, did not understand that they who do such things, are worthy of death; and not only they that do them, but they also that consent to them that do them.
 One of the definitions of consent is: “acquiescence to or acceptance of something done or planned by another”.
 One of the definitions of acquiescence is: “passive assent or agreement without protest”.
 Two of the definitions of accede are: “to consent” and “to give in”.
 Two of the definitions of accede are: “to consent” and “to give in”.
 St. Thomas Aquinas teaches the principle that a person is culpable for consenting to a murder even when that murder had been committed many centuries earlier. St. Thomas applies this principle to a person who joins the Jewish religion long after Christ’s murder. Here are St. Thomas’ words:
When a person becomes a Jew, he becomes a participant in the killing of Christ.
St. Thomas Aquinas, Lectures on St. Matthew, ch.23, §1861.
Thus, St. Thomas teaches that even the passage of a long, long time (1200 years, in St. Thomas’ time) after the murder, does not remove the culpability for consenting to it. In other words, there is no “end date” for culpability by consenting to murder after it was committed.
Note also regarding St. Thomas’ own example, that he places culpability upon consent to the murder of Christ (through conversion to Judaism), not upon ethnic lineage of a person. Thus, this culpability does not touch the Apostles or any other ethnically Jewish persons who did not (do not) consent to the murder of Christ.
 Here is how one legal commentary summarized the state of the law:
Some crimes have no statutes of limitations. As an example, murder typically has
Here is how the New York courts explain that murder does not become a non-prosecutable crime because of the passage of time:
Statutes of limitations are laws which say how long, after certain events, a case may be started based on those events. If the statute of limitations has run out, a case should not be started in court. If a case is started after the statute of limitations has run out, it is called time barred. A defendant or respondent can ask the court to dismiss the case if it is time barred by the statute of limitations.
Statute of limitations laws are based on fairness. Over time, memories fade, evidence is lost, and witnesses disappear. People get on with their lives and don’t expect court cases from events in the past – unless a really horrible crime has been committed.
The amount of time by when a person or agency can start a case is different depending on the claim. For example, cases about real property have a long time period, while slander and libel have short time periods. Some crimes, like murder, are so terrible that they often have no limitations period.
Except for when a government agency is sued, there is almost always at least one year from the date of an event to start a case no matter what type of claim it is. You should have no statute of limitations worries if you file your case within this one-year period.
 For a full explanation of this truth that all sin is an infinite evil in three ways and mortal sin is an infinite evil in a fourth way too, read this article:
 Here is a list of vaccines connected with murder and a list of ethical alternatives, if they exist:
 (listen at minute 15)
 For an explanation why the validity is doubtful using the conciliar rite of consecration of a bishop (now called “ordination of a bishop”), read Catholic Candle’s comparison of the new rite and the Traditional Episcopal rite. This comparison is available here:
 Definition of concatenation: “a group of things linked together or occurring together in a way that produces a particular result or effect”.
 Here, e.g., is an analysis of some of so-called “bishop” Athanasius Schneider’s liberalism:
As another example, here is a news report of so-called “archbishop” Vigano’s prayer at an ecumenical prayer event: at which a rabbi gave his “prayer” at the same event:
 (initial letter capitalized).
Here is the longer quote:
As several manufacturers announce the imminent development of a vaccine against Covid-19, many rumors circulate about those vaccines that suggest a moral impossibility to use them.
 The only pretense at “conservativism” in the position of the N-SSPX, is to say that we should choose a non-abortion-connected vaccine if one were available (although none is available). The Vatican says this too.
 See the analysis above, especially related to Our Lord’s murder 2,000 years ago concerning which a person is still not exonerated who consents to His being murdered, by joining Judaism.
 See these reports:
 (listen at minute 48).
 James Lyons-Weiler, Pathogenic Priming Likely Contributes to Serious and Critical Illness and Mortality in COVID-19 via Autoimmunity, Journal of Translational Autoimmunity, 2020, 100051, ISSN 2589-9090, &
 See, e.g.,
 See, e.g., &